Application security assessment: 5 key steps

Application security assessment

The security of programs, whether they be desktop software, online applications, or mobile apps, is of utmost significance. With cyber threats becoming increasingly sophisticated, organizations need to conduct comprehensive security assessments to identify vulnerabilities and protect their applications from potential attacks.

Annually, hackers find thousands of vulnerabilities in the software they penetrate. Ethical hackers can help identify security weak spots in systems and applications. According to the recent hacker-powered security report, more than 65 thousand vulnerabilities were discovered by ethical hackers in 2022, and this number grew significantly compared to 2021. Security data breaches and unauthorized access crimes increase in number every year.

With all these data breach scandals popping up in the news, more and more companies are beginning to understand the importance of implementing security measures. Conducting penetration testing by professionals, outsourcing security code review, hiring ethical hackers, and conducting security code reviews are all plausible ways to address and prevent security issues.

Now, it’s time to talk about how to protect your infrastructure from malicious and unauthorized attacks.

Define the scope and objectives

The scope and goals of the security assessment must be defined before the process can begin. This step involves understanding the purpose of the application, its architecture, and the potential risks it faces. By clearly defining the scope, you can focus your assessment efforts and ensure that all critical components are thoroughly evaluated.

Identify the assets: Determine the critical assets involved in the application, such as sensitive data, user credentials, or intellectual property. This step helps prioritize the assessment and concentrate on protecting the most valuable assets.

Conduct a threat modeling exercise

Threat modeling is a systematic approach to identifying potential threats, vulnerabilities, and countermeasures in an application. This step helps you understand the application’s architecture and design, enabling you to spot potential weaknesses and anticipate attack vectors.

Identify assets and trust boundaries: Determine the assets at risk and identify the trust boundaries where data flows between different components. This step plays an important role in visualizing the attack surface and potential entry points for threat actors.

Perform security testing

Once the scope is defined and potential risks are identified, it’s time to conduct security testing. Security testing involves a range of techniques and tools to uncover vulnerabilities in the application.

Static code analysis: Analyze the source code or binary of the application to pinpoint coding flaws, insecure coding practices, and common vulnerabilities. Static analysis tools can help automate this process and provide insights into potential security issues.

Dynamic application scanning: Simulate real-world attacks by actively interacting with the application and monitoring its behavior. This technique helps identify vulnerabilities that may arise from the application’s runtime behavior or configuration.

Penetration testing: Imitate the techniques real hackers use on software or infrastructure, and try to access the system. Penetration testing is performed to find security flaws and understand their potential impact. There are black box (external), white box (both external and internal), and gray box (a combination of both with cost-efficiency) penetration testing approaches.

Analyze and prioritize findings

It can be too expensive or even impossible to protect the system from all threats in existence.  After performing security testing, it’s crucial to analyze the findings and prioritize them based on their severity and potential impact on the application’s security. Calculate the vulnerability severity levels at which they should be categorized as critical, high, medium, or low. This classification helps prioritize the most critical vulnerabilities that require immediate attention to make sure the most significant security concerns are addressed.

Generally, every vulnerability has a different impact on the infrastructure, from critical external database breaches to simple informational notes that provide information about how to handle this type of environment. In any case, it is always advised to follow security best practices.

Implement remediation measures and ongoing monitoring

The final step in the application security assessment process is to implement remediation measures and establish ongoing monitoring to ensure the application’s security is maintained over time.

Develop a remediation plan: Make a thorough strategy to resolve the security risks and vulnerabilities found. Work along with the development team to rank the vulnerabilities according to their importance before fixing them. Setting realistic deadlines and allocating resources is crucial for carrying out the corrective actions.

Apply secure coding practices: To avoid creating new vulnerabilities, encourage safe coding techniques within the development team. Promote the use of safe frameworks and libraries, accurate input checking, and reliable authentication systems. These procedures may be reinforced with frequent code reviews and security training sessions.


Application security assessments are vital for organizations to protect their applications from potential cyber threats. Organizations may perform thorough assessments, identify vulnerabilities, and execute efficient repair strategies by following the five essential stages mentioned in this article. Defining the scope, conducting threat modeling, performing security testing, analyzing findings, and implementing remediation measures are all crucial elements of a successful application security assessment.


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