The well-known whitehat hacker and internet security researcher Moxie Marlinspike (born Matthew Rosenfeld) speaks on privacy threats at Defcon.
Мy name is Moxie Marlinspike, I’m from the Institute for Disruptive Studies. And I would like to take some time to talk about privacy. What I’d like to do is start by looking into the past, talking about the threats that we saw, the things that we thought were important, the projects that we thought were worth working on. And then I wanna talk a little bit about how I feel like trends have changed, and then look into the future, and talk a little bit about the things that I think might be important moving forward, things that I’m interested in working on and that maybe other people might be interested in working on.
So looking into the past, the sort of technology narrative of the 90s was largely dominated by a clicker that doesn’t work – by Netscape Navigator web browser. When it was first introduced, it was almost revolutionary, and a lot of people moved to capitalize on that knowledge. In particular, one of the major players that wanted to protect their interests was Microsoft. When they introduced Internet Explorer, the narrative changed just from the idea of a browser to this browser war between Netscape and Internet Explorer, and we all know how the browser wars turned out.But at the same time, there was another war that was happening, and it was somewhat more subtle but it was just as fierce and perhaps more important. There was a war over this thing (see image) – the little padlock in the bottom left-hand corner of the web browser; and more importantly – the technology behind it. On one side at this war were the Cypherpunks1: these were people who wanted to see this information and technology spread widely, the wanted to proliferate this throughout the world, so that may people could use it. And on the other side at this war were the eavesdroppers2 – these were people who wanted to prevent the spread of this information and stifle the use of this technology. And so the lines were drawn, and on the Cypherpunks’ side you had people like Matt Blaze, Philip Zimmermann, Ian Goldberg and Timothy May – the heroes of my teenage years. And the eavesdroppers thought that these people were dangerous – in fact, their ideas scared the f..k out of them. They were talking about the move from a world where they had ultimate control and ultimate access to all information to a world where they would have no control and no access to any information. In fact, they though this was so dangerous that they classified these ideas as weapons, so if you write a little bit of crypto code and send it to your friend in Canada, that was deemed to be similar to exporting ammunitions, and you could be tried and prosecuted accordingly. At the same time however, they realized that this privacy thing might important to some people and that this idea might catch on, and so they decided to come up with their own solution which they called ‘key escrow’ that was best embodied by the clipper chip3 (see image). What they wanted to do was make this chip and the embed it into every piece of consumer communications electronics: every telephone, every fax machine, every personal computer. And what it would do is some cryptography, but it was a closed system and you wouldn’t be able to get access to the internals of this chip, and you would be able to use it to start secure sessions. The only trick was that the Government would have like the equivalent of a master key which they could then use to decrypt anything that they thought might be interesting.
The eavesdroppers problem here was that cryptography is not a banana, which is to say that it’s difficult to treat information as objects. You know, if I have a banana and share it with my friend, there is still only one banana in the world. If they then share it with a friend of theirs, there’s still only one banana in the world. However, information works differently: every time I share information, I’m copying it and there is a chance for an exponential explosion.
This sort of fundamental dilemma was made worse by cypherpunks’ mantra – ‘Cypherpunks’ Write Code’. The idea was that a lot of good work had been done in academia and research circles developing public-key cryptography and other encryption systems outside the Government round, but not a lot had been done to actually put it into practice. And what cypherpunks wanted was actual software that people could download and use right now to communicate securely. And so they kind of went nuts: some people moved to Anguilla – an island in the Caribbean that had very favourable laws in terms of exporting cryptography, and started writing crypto code and trying to ship it throughout the world.
There were more creative strategies, like in 1995 Filip Zimmermann published a book in conjunction with “MIT Press” called “PGP: source code and internals”. The deal was that the book was just the entire PGP source code printed in a machine-readable font, ‘cause, you know, digital representations of cryptography were weapons, but if you printed it in a book – that was speech. So they printed this whole thing in a book in very small print run, and then, you know, just shipped it to every country in the world where they wanted to see this. And then, the people there just scanned it back in because it was a machine-readable font, and now PGP had been distributed completely legally all over the world.
So, you know, this kinda stuff continued and the strategies got more and more diverse, and cryptography got more and more ubiquitous, until 2000 when suddenly the Clinton Administration repealed all of the significant laws limiting the export of cryptography. So it sort of seemed like the game was over and that the world was won.
If you go back and look at the cypherpunk predictions about what would happen once cryptography was ubiquitous, the first prediction that they made was simply that it would become ubiquitous, that it would inevitably spread throughout the world. And this turned out to be their most prescient prediction – this was really one of the first times that we saw that information really does want to be free. But if you look at their predictions about what happened once it was ubiquitous, they were somewhat less prescient: that anonymous digital cash would flourish; that intellectual property would disappear; that surveillance would become impossible; that governments would then be unable to continue collecting taxes and that governments would fall.
If you flash forward ten years from when these predictions were made, cryptography is the thing that allows you to securely transmit your credit card number to Amazon.com so you can buy a copy of Sarah Palin’s book on “Going Rogue”.
Sure, some of these ideas have been eroded somewhat, but surveillance is probably at an all time high, while privacy is probably at an all time low. So what happened? You know, it sort of seemed like we were gaining a victory in this war, and it seemed like we won the war. And now, here we are in the strange situation.
Well, I think part of thesis here is that in many ways I feel like the cypherpunks were preparing for a future, and the future that they anticipated was fascism. But what we got was social democracy. And that’s not necessarily better, it’s just different. Let me give you an example. How many people in this room would feel good about a law which required everyone to carry a government-mandated tracking device with them at all times? Not even one person, right? So that’s fascism, right? That’s the fascist future. Now, let me ask you another question. How many people here carry a mobile phone? I’m guessing, actually, a hundred percent of the people in this room. And so that’s social democracy. So what is the difference between the government-mandated tracking device and a mobile phone? You know, a mobile phone is just a tracking device that reports your real-time position to one of a few telecommunications companies which are required by law to hand that information over to the government. So logistically they are the same, you know. So what is the difference? You can turn it off, but you don’t. Choice is the big difference, you know. You choose to carry a cell phone, and you wouldn’t choose to carry this government-mandated tracking device.
So let’s talk about that. Never in my wildest dreams did I think that I would have a cell phone. Why would I, you know? It’s a mobile tracking device, it’s a mobile bug that operates in an insecure protocol. Why would I want one of these? And yet, I have one and I carry it with me all the time, every day. Well, I think if we look at the way that people tend to communicate and coordinate in groups, often there are sort of informal mechanisms and channels that people use to communicate and to make plans and stay in touch. And if I introduce a more codified communications channel, there’s a well-known problem called the ‘No Network Effect’, where I invent this thing (maybe like the GSM cellular network) and I start using it, but it’s difficult to use because the value of that network is in the number of nodes that are connected to it, and if I’m the only one using it then it’s really not worth very much. If however, I somehow manage to get everyone to start using this thing, then it becomes very useful and very valuable. But there’s an interesting side effect, which is that the old informal methods of communication and coordination are destroyed. The technology actually changes the fabric of society. I mean, there are many trivial examples of this in the mobile phone world.
We see that mobile phones have changed the way that people make plans. It used to be that people made plans, you know; they were saying “I’ll meet you on the street corner at this time and we’ll go somewhere”. And now, people say “I’ll call you when I’m getting off work”. So if you don’t have that piece of technology, you can’t participate in the way the society is communicating or coordinating. And so what actually ends up happening is now if I decide that I don’t want to participate in this codified communications channel, I’m, once again, victim to the ‘No Network Effect’, because what I’m trying to do is go be a part of a network that has been destroyed, that no longer exists. And I’m, once again, the only one using it, and I’m part of a network that has very little value.
So yes, I made a choice to have a cell phone. But what kind of choice did I make? And I think that this is the way that things tend to go now. What ends up happening is the choices turn out very simple. Do I have a piece of consumer electronics in my pocket or not? And over time, the scope of that choice slowly expands until it becomes a choice to participate in society or not. On some level today, to choose not to have a cell phone means, in some sense, to choose not to participate in society.
1 – Cypherpunk is an activist advocating widespread use of strong cryptography as a route to social and political change.
2 – Eavesdropper is an individual secretly listening to the private conversation of others without their consent. In this narration, the terms refers to the Authorities trying to intercept other people’s private information trasmitted via the web.
3 – Clipper chip is a chipset that was developed and promoted by the U.S. National Security Agency as an encryption device to be adopted by telecommunications companies for voice transmission.